Enterobacteriaceae is a family of gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria that are commonly found in soil, water, plants and animals and can cause common infections such as urinary tract infections. Some of these bacteria have become resistant to carbapenem antibiotics and are known as carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE). When this resistance is mediated by a group of enzymes called carbapenemase, these bacteria are referred to as carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE).
CPE is considered to be a significant health concern. The case fatality rate for serious infections may be as high as 50%. Because CPE are resistant to many antibiotics that are considered the last line of defense, treatment of infections with CPE may be difficult.
Announcement: CPE voluntary surveillance program discontinued
Please note that the CPE voluntary surveillance program that was established by PHO in collaboration with the Ministry of Health and Long‐Term Care (MOHLTC) in 2011 has been discontinued, as CPE is now reportable. The MOHLTC updated the Health Protection and Promotion Act (HPPA) and its regulations for reporting Diseases Of Public Health Significance (DOPHS), formerly known as the ‘Ontario Reportable Disease List’, to include CPE colonization and infection, effective Tuesday, May 1, 2018.
For guidance on reporting CPE, please see the Infectious Diseases Protocol, 2018 (Appendix A - Disease Specific Chapter and Appendix B - Case Definition), or contact your local public health unit.