Sujets émergents : synopsis des principaux articles de recherche sur la COVID-19

SPO agit de façon proactive en surveillant, en examinant et en évaluant les recherches internationales pertinentes concernant le nouveau coronavirus (COVID-19). La présente page Web décrit brièvement et résume les points saillants des nouveaux articles qui sont importants pour la santé publique en Ontario. Elle sera mise à jour régulièrement à mesure que la situation évoluera et que d’autres rapports de recherche seront diffusés.

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New

May 11, 2021

Sadoff J, Gray G, Vandebosch A, Cárdenas V, Shukarev G, Grinsztejn B, et al. Safety and Efficacy of Single-Dose Ad26.COV2.S Vaccine against Covid-19. New England Journal of Medicine. 2021 Apr 21. [Epub ahead of print] Available from: https://doi.org/10.1056/nejmoa2101544

The authors report findings of ENSEMBLE, a phase 3 international, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial to evaluate the efficacy and safety of a single dose of the Janssen pharmaceutical (Johnson & Johnson) Ad26.COV2.S COVID-19 vaccine.

Review of “Safety and Efficacy of Single-Dose of Ad26.COV2.S Vaccine against COVID-19”

May 10, 2021

Laydon DJ, Mishra S, Hinsley WR, Samartsidis P, Flaxman S, Gandy A, et al. Modelling the impact of the tier system on SARS-CoV- 2 transmission in the UK between the first and second national lockdowns. BMJ Open. 202111:e050346. Available from:
https://bmjopen.bmj.com/content/bmjopen/11/4/e050346.full.pdf

In this study, the authors examined the effects of the three tier system on the COVID-19 pandemic in the UK between the first and second national lockdowns (before the emergence of the B.1.1.7 variant of concern).

Review of “Modelling the impact of the tier system on SARS-CoV-2 transmission in the UK between the first and second national lockdowns”

May 4, 2021

Moghadas SM, Fitzpatrick MC, Shoukat A, Zhang K, Galvani AP. Simulated identification of silent COVID-19 infections among children and estimated future infection rates with vaccination. JAMA Netw Open. 2021;4(4):e217097. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2021.7097

This study used a disease transmission model with data from the United States (US) from December 12, 2020 to February 26, 2021 to estimate the benefits of identifying silent (i.e., presymptomatic or asymptomatic) Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) infections among children.

Review of “Simulated Identification of Silent COVID-19 Infections among Children and Estimated Future Infection Rates with Vaccination”

April 30, 2021

Shimabukuro TT, Kim SY, Myers TR, Moro PL, Oduyebo T, Panagiotakopoulos L, et al. Preliminary findings of mRNA covid-19 vaccine safety in pregnant persons. N Engl J Med. 2021 Apr 21 [Epub ahead of print]. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1056/nejmoa2104983

This study evaluated pregnancy registry data and vaccine adverse event reporting to describe the safety of mRNA COVID-19 vaccines BNT162b2 (Pfizer–BioNTech) and mRNA-1273 (Moderna) in pregnant persons in the United States (US).

Review of “Preliminary Findings of mRNA COVID-19 Vaccine Safety in Pregnant Persons”

April 22, 2021

Bullard J, Funk D, Dust K, Garnett L, Tran K, Bello A, et al. Infectivity of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 in children compared with adults. CMAJ. 2021 Apr 9 [Epub ahead of print].
Available from: https://doi.org/10.1503/cmaj.21026

In this study, the authors compared the infectivity of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in children (<18 years) and adults (≥18 years) in Manitoba (March to December 2020).

Review of “Infectivity of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 in children compared with adults”

April 9, 2021

Grint DJ, Wing K, Williamson E, McDonald HI, Bhaskaran K, Evans D, et al. Case fatality risk of the SARS-CoV-2 variant of concern B.1.1.7 in England, 16 November to 5 February. Euro Surveill. 2021;26(11):2100256.
Available from: https://doi.org/10.2807/1560-7917.ES.2021.26.11.2100256

In this cohort analysis of individuals with confirmed infection of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in England, the authors compared the risk of all-cause mortality between those infected with the B.1.1.7 variant of concern (VOC) and non-VOC.

Review of “Case Fatality Risk of the SARS-CoV-2 Variant of Concern B.1.1.7 in England, 16 November to 5 February."

April 8, 2021

Katelaris AL, Wells J, Clark P, Norton S, Rockett R, Arnott A, et al. Epidemiologic evidence for airborne transmission of SARS-CoV-2 during church singing, Australia, 2020. EID. 2021 Jun [cited 2021 Apr 6].
Available from: https://wwwnc.cdc.gov/eid/article/27/6/21-0465_article

Twelve secondary cases of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) were linked to an index case, an 18 year old chorister with symptom-onset of July 16 and positive test July 17, who sang at four one-hour services, one each on July 15 and 16, and two on July 17.

Review of “Epidemiologic evidence for airborne transmission of SARS-CoV-2 during church singing, Australia, 2020”

March 22, 2021

Hyams C, Marlow R, Maseko Z, King J, Ward L, Fox K, Heath R, Turner A, Friedrich Z, Morrison L, Ruffino G. Assessing the Effectiveness of BNT162b2 and ChAdOx1nCoV-19 COVID-19 Vaccination in Prevention of Hospitalisations in Elderly and Frail Adults: A Single Centre Test Negative Case-Control Study.
Available from:
https://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.3796835

Lopez Bernal JL, Andrews N, Gower C, Stowe J, Robertson C, Tessier E, Simmons R, Cottrell S, Robertson R, O'Doherty M, Brown K. Early effectiveness of COVID-19 vaccination with BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine and ChAdOx1 adenovirus vector vaccine on symptomatic disease, hospitalisations and mortality in older adults in England. medRxiv. 2021 Jan 1.
Available from:
https://doi.org/10.1101/2021.03.01.21252652

Two studies examine vaccine effectiveness in the elderly population in the United Kingdom.

Review of articles on BNT162b2 and ChAdOx1nCoV-19 COVID-19 vaccine effectiveness

March 19, 2021

Groves LM, Usagawa L, Elm J, Low E, Manuzak A, Quint J, et al. Community transmission of SARS-CoV-2 at three fitness facilities – Hawaii, June–July 2020. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2021;70(9):316-20.
Available from: https://doi.org/10.15585/mmwr.mm7009e1.

Lendacki FR, Teran RA, Gretsch S, Fricchione MJ, Kerin JL. COVID-19 outbreak among attendees of an exercise facility – Chicago, Illinois, August–September 2020. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2021;70(9):321-5.
Available from: https://doi.org/10.15585/mmwr.mm7009e2.

Two outbreaks of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) in fitness facilities (one in Hawaii, the other in Chicago) were reported in the March 5, 2021 issue of the Morbidity Mortality Weekly Report.

Review of “Community Transmission of SARS-CoV-2 at Three Fitness Facilities – Hawaii, June–July 2020” and “COVID-19 Outbreak Among Attendees of an Exercise Facility – Chicago, Illinois, August–September 2020”

New

March 16, 2021

Li Y, Campbell H, Kulkarni D, Harpur A, Nundy M, Wang X, Nair H, for the Usher Network for COVID-19 Evidence Reviews (UNCOVER) group. The temporal association of introducing and lifting non-pharmaceutical interventions with the time-varying reproduction number (R) of SARS-CoV-2: a modelling study across 131 countries. The Lancet Infectious Diseases. 2021 Feb 1;21(2):193-202.
Available from:
https://doi.org/10.1016/S1473-3099(20)30785-4

This study modelled the association between introducing and relaxing eight different non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) with the level of transmission of SARS-CoV-2, based on the time-varying reproduction number (R).

Review of “The temporal association of introducing and lifting non-pharmaceutical interventions with the time-varying reproduction number (R) of SARS-CoV-2: a modelling study across 131 countries”

March 12, 2021

Kissler S, Fauver JR, Mack C, Tai CG, Breban MI, et al. Densely sampled viral trajectories suggest longer duration of acute infection with B.1.1.7 variant relative to non-B.1.1.7 SARS-CoV-2. medRxiv [Preprint]. 2021 Feb 19 [cited 2021 Mar 11].
Available from: https://www.medrxiv.org/content/10.1101/2021.02.16.21251535v1

Using modelling and longitudinal sampling, the authors tested whether acute B.1.1.7 infection is associated with higher or more sustained nasopharyngeal (NP) viral concentrations.

Review of “Densely sampled viral trajectories suggest longer duration of acute infection with B.1.1.7 variant relative to non-B.1.1.7 SARS-CoV-2”

March 11, 2021

Guy GP, Lee FC, Sunshine G, McCord R, Howard-Williams M, Kompaniyets L, et al. Association of State-Issued Mask Mandates and Allowing On-Premises Restaurant Dining with County-Level COVID-19 Case and Death Growth Rates — United States, March 1–December 31, 2020. MMWR 2021 Mar 5. [Early release]
Available from: https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/70/wr/mm7010e3.htm?s_cid=mm7010e3_w

This study, by authors at the United States (US) Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, supports recommendations of universal masking and avoiding non-essential shared spaces to mitigate the spread of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). In this study, the non-essential indoor spaces considered were on-premises restaurant dining.

Review of “Association of State-Issued Mask Mandates and Allowing On-Premises Restaurant Dining with County-Level COVID-19 Case and Death Growth Rates — United States, March 1–December 31, 2020”

March 8, 2021

Stern RA, Koutrakis P, Martins MAG, Lemos B, Dowd SE, Sunderland EM, et al. Characterization of hospital airborne SARS-CoV-2. Respir Res. 2021;22(1):73. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1186/s12931-021-01637-8

The authors examined the size of particles and locations associated with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) RNA in an acute care hospital environment in locations outside of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) patient care areas. 

Review of “Characterization of Hospital Airborne SARS-CoV-2”

February 19, 2021

Verma AA, Hora T, Jung HY, Fralick M, Malecki SL, Lapointe-Shaw L, et al. Characteristics and outcomes of hospital admissions for COVID-19 and influenza in the Toronto area. CMAJ 2021 Feb 10. [Early release. Subject to revision]
Available from: https://www.cmaj.ca/content/early/2021/02/10/cmaj.202795

This study compared patient characteristics, resource use, clinical care and outcomes for 1735 adult patients with COVID-19 and influenza. The study setting was in 7 hospitals in Toronto and Mississauga, Ontario during the first wave of the pandemic.

Review of “Characteristics and outcomes of hospital admissions for COVID-19 and influenza in the Toronto area”

February 19, 2021

Brooks JT, Beezhold DH, Noti JD, Coyle JP, Derk RC, Blachere FM, et al. Maximizing fit for cloth and medical procedure masks to improve performance and reduce SARS-CoV-2 transmission and exposure, 2021. MMWR. 2021 Feb 10 [ePub ahead of print].
Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.15585/mmwr.mm7007e1

An experimental simulation study using masked dummy headforms was conducted using different configurations and modifications with three-ply medical masks and three-ply cotton masks to evaluate source control on a source model and protection afforded to a receiver under controlled conditions.

Review of “Maximizing fit for cloth and medical procedure masks to improve performance and reduce SARS-CoV-2 transmission and exposure, 2021”

February 16, 2021

Voysey M, Costa Clemens SA, Madhi SA, Weckx LY, Folegatti PM, Aley PK, et al. Single dose administration, and the influence of the timing of the booster dose on immunogenicity and efficacy of ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 (AZD1222) vaccine. Lancet 2021 Feb 01. [Epub ahead of print]. Available from: https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=3777268

In this pre-print study, the authors’ conclude “ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccination programmes aimed at vaccinating a large proportion of the population with a single dose, with a second dose given after a 3 month period is an effective strategy for reducing disease, and may be the optimal for rollout of a pandemic vaccine when supplies are limited in the short term.”

Review of "Single dose administration, and the influence of the timing of the booster dose on immunogenicity and efficacy of ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 (AZD1222) vaccine"

February 2, 2021

Rapid review on the characteristics of effective non-medical face masks in reducing the risk of SARS-CoV-2 transmission [Internet]. Ottawa, ON: Public Health Agency of Canada; 2021 Jan 5 [cited 2021 Jan 27]. Available from: https://www.nccmt.ca/covid-19/covid-19-evidence-reviews/261

This rapid review examined the evidence on the characteristics and efficacy of non-medical masks in reducing severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) transmission.

Review of “Rapid review on the characteristics of effective non-medical face masks in reducing the risk of SARS-CoV-2 transmission”

January 28, 2021

Zimmerman KO, Akinboyo IC, Brookhart MA, Boutzoukas AE, McGann K, Smith MJ, et al. Incidence and secondary transmission of SARS-CoV-2 infections in schools. Pediatrics. 2021 Jan 8 [Epub ahead of print].
Available from: https://doi.org/10.1542/peds.2020-048090

This study evaluated the hypothesis that in-person learning would not lead to substantial Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) transmission among school students and staff in North Carolina, United States, if students and staff adhere to wearing of face masks, physical distancing and hand hygiene.

Review of “Incidence and secondary transmission of SARS-CoV-2 infections in schools”

January 27, 2021

Horby P, Huntley C, Davies N, Edmunds J, Ferguson N, Medley G, et al. NERVTAG paper on COVID-19 variant of concern B.1.1.7 [Internet]. London: Crown copyright; 2021 [cited 2021 Jan 26].
Available from: https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/nervtag-paper-on-covid-19-variant-of-concern-b117

The New and Emerging Respiratory Virus Threats Advisory Group (NERVTAG) reported with 40% to 50% confidence that COVID-19 Variant of Concern (VOC) B.1.1.7 is associated with an increased risk of death compared to non-VOC, based on preliminary evidence from data of COVID-19 deaths linked to testing results in the community.

Review of “NERVTAG Paper on COVID-19 variant of concern B.1.1.7”

January 21, 2021

Rolfes MA, Grijalva CG, Zhu Y, McLean HQ, Hanson KE, Belongia EA, et al. Implications of shortened quarantine among household contacts of index patients with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection — Tennessee and Wisconsin, April–September 2020. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2021;69(5152):1633-7.
Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.15585/mmwr.mm695152a1

This study used data from an ongoing study of household Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) transmission in Nashville, Tennessee and Marshfield, Wisconsin to determine the proportion of household contacts with detectable virus after a shortened quarantine period.

Review of “Implications of shortened quarantine among household contacts of index patients with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection — Tennessee and Wisconsin, April–September 2020”

January 19, 2021

Brandal LT, Ofitserova TS, Meijerink H, Rykkvin R, Lund HM, Hungnes O, et al. Minimal transmission of SARS-CoV-2 from paediatric COVID-19 cases in primary schools, Norway, August to November 2020. Euro Surveill. 2021;26(1):pii=2002011.
https://doi.org/10.2807/1560-7917.ES.2020.26.1.2002011.

This study prospectively examined transmission of severe acute respiratory coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) from confirmed paediatric cases in Norwegian primary schools between August and November 2020. 

Review of “Minimal transmission of SARS-CoV-2 from paediatric COVID-19 cases in primary schools, Norway, August to November 2020”

January 11, 2021

Baden LR, El Sahly HM, Essink B, Kotloff K, Frey S, Novak R, et al. Efficacy and safety of the mRNA-1273 SARS-CoV-2 vaccine. N Engl J Med. 2020 Dec 30 [Epub ahead of print].
Available from:
https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa2035389

The authors report interim findings of a phase-3 randomized, stratified, observer-blinded placebo-controlled trial to evaluate the efficacy and safety of the Moderna mRNA-1273 COVID-19 vaccine.

Review of “Efficacy and safety of mRNA-1273 SARS-CoV-2 vaccine”

January 8, 2021

Volz E, Mishra S, Chand M, Barrett JC, Johnson R, Geidelberg L, et al. Transmission of SARS-CoV-2 lineage B.1.1.7 in England: insights from linking epidemiological and genetic data. medRxiv 20249034 [Preprint]. 2021 Jan 04 [cited 2021 Jan 04].
Available from: https://doi.org/10.1101/2020.12.30.20249034

The SARS-CoV-2 lineage B.1.1.7 is now designated Variant of Concern 202012/01 (VOC) by Public Health England and is a genetic variant that includes amino acid substitutions that have implications related to increased ACE2 binding, and deletions that has impact on diagnostic assays.

Review of “Transmission of SARS-CoV-2 Lineage B.1.1.7 in England: Insights from Linking Epidemiological and Genetic Data”

December 24, 2020

Polack FP, Thomas SJ, Kitchin N, Absalon J, Gurtman A, Lockhart S, et al. Safety and efficacy of the BNT162b2 mRNA COVID-19 vaccine. N Engl J Med. 2020 Dec 10 [Epub ahead of print]. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa2034577

This is a report of the safety and efficacy findings from the phase 2/3 part of an ongoing multinational, randomized placebo-controlled, double-blind trial of the BNT162b2 vaccine in preventing symptomatic COVID-19 in persons 16 years of age or older after two doses (30 μg each) at 21 days apart. 

Review of “Safety and Efficacy of the BNT162b2 mRNA COVID-19 Vaccine”

December 24, 2020

Voysey M, Clemens SAC, Madhi SA, Weckx LY, Folegatti PM, Aley PK, et al. Safety and efficacy of the ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccine (AZD1222) against SARS-CoV-2: an interim analysis of four randomised controlled trials in Brazil, South Africa, and the UK. Lancet. 2020 Dec 08 [Epub ahead of print]. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(20)32661-1 

The ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccine was developed at Oxford University using a replication-deficient chimpanzee adenovirus vector containing the SARS-CoV-2 structural surface glycoprotein antigen (Spike protein) gene. 

Review of “Safety and Efficacy of the ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 Vaccine (AZD1222) Against SARS-CoV2: An Interim Analysis of Four Randomised Controlled Trials in Brazil, South Africa, and the UK”

December 9, 2020

Article 1. Ioannidis JPA, Axfors C, Contopoulos-Ioannidis DG. Population-level COVID-19 mortality risk for non-elderly individuals overall and for non-elderly individuals without underlying diseases in pandemic epicenters. Environ Res. 2020 Jul 01 [Epub ahead of print].
Available from: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envres.2020.109890

Article 2. Ioannidis JPA. Infection fatality rate of COVID-19 inferred from seroprevalence data. Bulletin of the World Health Organization. 2020 Oct 14 [Epub ahead of print].
Available from: https://www.who.int/bulletin/online_first/BLT.20.265892.pdf

COVID-19 infection fatality rates reported in two studies by Ioannidis et al. One cross-sectional study reports COVID death data from European, Canadian and US locations; the second reviews seroprevalence and mortality data of COVID-19 from 51 locations. Both articles are in the context of wave one of the pandemic.

COVID-19 Infection Fatality Rates Reported in Two Studies by Ioannidis et al.

December 4, 2020

Aydillo T, Gonzalez-Reiche AS, Aslam F, van de Guchte A, Khan Z, Obla A, et al. Shedding of viable SARS-CoV-2 after immunosuppressive therapy for cancer. N Engl J Med. 2020 Dec 1 [Epub ahead of print].
Available from: https://www.nejm.org/doi/10.1056/NEJMc2031670

This study investigated the shedding of live severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in 20 patients with cancer and immune system compromise. Patients were from a single cancer centre in New York City and diagnosed with Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) between March 10 and April 20, 2020.

Review of “Shedding of viable SARS-CoV-2 after immunosuppressive therapy for cancer”

December 1, 2020

Bundgaard H, Bundgaard JS, Raaschou-Pedersen DET, von Buchwald C, Todsen T, Norsk JB, et al. Effectiveness of adding a mask recommendation to other public health measures to prevent SARS-CoV-2 infection in Danish mask wearers. Ann Intern Med. 2020 Nov 18 [Epub ahead of print].
Available from: https://doi.org/10.7326/M20-6817

This is a community-based unblinded randomized controlled trial in five regions in Denmark between April 3 and June 2, 2020 to assess if recommendations for wearing surgical masks outside the home would protect wearers from acquiring coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19).

Review of “Effectiveness of Adding a Mask Recommendation to Other Public Health Measures to Prevent SARS-CoV-2 Infection in Danish Mask Wearers”

December 30, 2020

Hobbs CV, Martin LM, Kim SS, Kirmse BM, Haynie L, McGraw S, et al. Factors associated with positive SARS-CoV-2 test results in outpatient health facilities and emergency departments among children and adolescents aged <18 years—Mississippi, September–November 2020. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2020;(69)50:1925-9. Available from: https://doi.org/10.15585/mmwr.mm6950e3

This is a case-control study that compares school, community, and close contact exposures of persons aged <18 years who tested positive for COVID-19 by reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) (case patients), with those who tested negative (control participants). 

Review of “Factors associated with positive SARS-CoV-2 test results in outpatient health facilities and emergency departments among children and adolescents aged <18 years—Mississippi, September–November 2020”

November 19, 2020

Chang S, Pierson E, Koh PW, Gerardin J, Redbird B, Grusky D, et al. Mobility network models of COVID-19 explain inequities and inform reopening. Nature. 2020 Nov 10 [Epub ahead of print] Available from: https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-020-2923-3

Integrating mobility networks data into the SEIR epidemiological model, the authors compared the estimated risks of infection with full reopening of non-residential points of interest (POIs) frequented by people, with stringent reopening by restricting peak occupancy at certain POIs, and identified populations at risk of COVID-19 infection.

Review of “Mobility network models of COVID-19 explain inequities and inform reopening”

November 3, 2020

Pan American Health Organization/World Health Organization. Interim guidelines for detecting cases of reinfection by SARS-CoV-2. 27 October 2020. Washington, DC: Pan American Health Organization/World Health Organization; 2020.
Available from: https://www.paho.org/en/documents/interim-guidelines-detecting-cases-reinfection-sars-cov-2 

This Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) document proposes interim case definitions for detecting and documenting reinfection by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). 
 

Review of “Interim Guidelines for Detecting Cases of Reinfection by SARS-CoV-2”

October 28, 2020

National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine 2020. Airborne transmission of SARS-CoV-2: proceedings of a workshop in brief. Washington, DC: The Academies Press. 2020.
Available from: https://doi.org/10.17226/25958

The report is a high-level summary of the presentations and discussions at a workshop on airborne transmission of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) held in August, 2020. This report summarizes views of individual experts and is not meant to represent consensus conclusions or recommendations.

Review of “Airborne Transmission of SARS-CoV-2: Proceedings of a Workshop in Brief”

October 28, 2020

Hale T, Phillips T, Petherick A, Kira B, Angrist N, Aymar K, et al. Risk of openness index: when do government responses need to be increased or maintained? Oxford, United Kingdom: Blavatnik School of Government Research Note. 2020 Sept 3 [cited 2020 Oct 20].
Available from: https://www.bsg.ox.ac.uk/research/publications/risk-openness-index-when-do-government-responses-need-be-increased-or

The Risk of Openness Index (RoOI), previously Lockdown Rollback Checklist, is a dataset of risk ratings (risk of openness) that relates to a country’s readiness for adopting an ‘open’ policy (removal/reduction public health measures).

Review of “Risk of Openness Index: When do government responses need to be increased or maintained”

October 27, 2020

Pringle JC, Leikauskas J, Ransom-Kelley S, Webster B, Santos S, Fox H, et al. COVID-19 in a correctional facility employee following multiple brief exposures to person with COVID-19 – Vermont, July-August 2020. MMWR. 2020;69. Available from: https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/69/wr/pdfs/mm6943e1-H.pdf

A correctional officer assigned to an 8-hour shift in a correctional facility quarantine unit on July 28, 2020 containing six SARS-CoV-2 positive, asymptomatic detained persons became symptomatic one week later with a subsequent positive polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test result. 

Review of “COVID-19 in a correctional facility employee following multiple brief exposures to person with COVID-19 – Vermont, July-August 2020”

October 21, 2020

Riddell S, Goldie S, Hill A, Eagles D, Drew TW. The effect of temperature on persistence of SARS-CoV-2 on common surfaces. Virol J. 2020 Oct 7 [Epub ahead of print].
Available from: https://doi.org/10.1186/s12985-020-01418-7

The authors tested the stability of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) under controlled conditions on six surface types.

Review of “The effect of temperature on persistence of SARS-CoV-2 on common surfaces”

October 15, 2020

Asadi S, Cappa CD, Barreda S, Wexler AS, Bouvier NM, Ristenpart WD. Efficacy of masks and face coverings in controlling outward aerosol particle emission from expiratory activities. Sci Rep. 2020 Sep 24 [Epub ahead of print].
Available from: https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-72798-7

This report examines the efficacy of 6 types of masks and respirators at reducing outward aerosol emission from breathing, speaking, coughing and jaw moving.

Review of “Efficacy of face masks and face coverings in controlling outward aerosol particle emission from expiratory activities”

September 18, 2020

Doung-ngern P, Suphanchaimat R, Panjangampatthana A, Janekrongtham C, Ruampoom D, Daochaeng N, et al. Case-control study of use of personal protective measures and risk for SARS-CoV-2 infection, Thailand. Emerg Infect Dis. 2020 Sep 14 [Epud ahead of print].
Available from: https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2611.203003

This is a retrospective case-control study to evaluate the effectiveness of mask wearing, hand washing, social distancing and other personal protective measures in preventing Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection in public venues in Thailand.

Review of “Case-control study of use of personal protective measures and risk for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection, Thailand”

September 15, 2020

Leclerc QJ, Fuller NM, Knight LE, Funk S, Knight GM, CMMID COVID-19 Working Group. What settings have been linked to SARS-CoV-2 transmission clusters?. Wellcome Open Res. 2020; 5(83):83. [Epub ahead of print].
Available from: https://doi.org/10.12688/wellcomeopenres.15889.2

This paper is a systematic review to determine the types of indoor and outdoor settings where transmission and clusters of COVID-19 have been reported.

Review of “What settings have been linked to SARS-CoV-2 transmission clusters?”

September 8, 2020

Kang M, Wei J, Yuan J, Guo J, Zhang Y, Hang J, et al. Probable evidence of fecal aerosol transmission of SARS-CoV-2 in a high-rise building. Ann Intern Med. 2020 Sep 01 [Epub ahead of print].
Available from: https://doi.org/10.7326/m20-0928

This study investigated an outbreak of nine COVID-19 cases in a high-rise apartment building in Guangzhou, China (January 26 to February 13, 2020), where the potential mode of transmission was through fecal aerosols.

Review of “Probable evidence of fecal aerosol transmission of SARS-CoV-2 in a high-rise building”

September 8, 2020

Gudbjartsson DF, Norddahl GL, Melsted P, Gunnarsdottir K, Holm H, Eythorsson E, et al. Humoral immune response to SARS-CoV-2 in Iceland. New Engl J Med. 2020 Sep 1 [Epub ahead of print].
Available from: https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa2026116

The authors assessed Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) seroprevalence among 30,576 Iceland residents.

Review of “Humoral immune response to SARS-CoV-2 in Iceland”

August 31, 2020

To KK-W, Hung IF-N, Ip JP, Chu AW-H, Chan W-M, Tam AR, et al. COVID-19 re-infection by a phylogenetically distinct SARS-coronavirus-2 strain confirmed by whole genome sequencing. Clin Infect Dis. 2020 Aug 25 [Epub ahead of print].
Available from: https://doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciaa1275

This study documents Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) reinfection in a 33-year-old male resident of Hong Kong 142 days after the first episode.

Review of “COVID-19 re-infection by a phylogenetically distinct SARS-coronavirus-2 strain confirmed by whole genome sequencing”

July 17, 2020

Morawska L, Milton DK. It is time to address airborne transmission of COVID-19. Clin Infect Dis. 2020 Jul 6 [Epub ahead of print].
Available from: https://doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciaa939

The authors appeal to relevant national and international organizations and the medical community to recognize the risk of airborne transmission of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19).

Review of “It is time to address airborne transmission of COVID-19”

June 29, 2020

Mitze T, Kosfeld R, Rode J, Wälde K. Face masks considerably reduce COVID-19 cases in Germany: a synthetic control method approach. IZA Discussion Paper Series No. 13319. Bonn, Germany: IZA Institute of Labour Econoimics; 2020. Available from: https://www.iza.org/publications/dp/13319/face-masks-considerably-reduce-covid-19-cases-in-germany-a-synthetic-control-method-approach

This study used a synthetic control method (SCM) to assess the effect of face mask use on the spread of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Germany.

Review of “Face masks considerably reduce COVID-19 cases in Germany: a synthetic control method approach”

June 20, 2020

Kucharski AJ, Klepac P, Conlan AJK, Kissler SM, Tang ML, Fry H, et al. Effectiveness of isolation, testing, contact tracing, and physical distancing on reducing transmission of SARS-CoV-2 in different settings: a mathematical modelling study. Lancet Infect Dis. 2020 Jun 16 [Epub ahead of print].
Available from: https://doi.org/10.1016/S1473-3099(20)30457-6

This modelling study estimated the reduction of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) transmission under different public health strategies and settings, and estimated the number of contacts that would need to be quarantined under different strategies.

Review of “Effectiveness of isolation, testing, contact tracing, and physical distancing on reducing transmission of SARS-CoV-2 in different settings: a mathematical modelling study”

June 16, 2020

World Health Organization. Advice on the use of masks in the context of COVID-19. Interim guidance. 5 June 2020 [Internet]. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2020.
Available from: https://apps.who.int/iris/rest/bitstreams/1279750/retrieve

This is an update of interim guidance from the WHO on the use of masks in the context of COVID-19.

Review of “Advice on the use of masks in the context of COVID-19: interim guidance -5 June 2020”

June 10, 2020

Flaxman S, Mishra S, Gandy A, Unwin HJT, Mellan TA, Coupland H, et al. Estimating the effects of non-pharmaceutical interventions on COVID-19 in Europe.  Nature. 2020 Jun 8 [Epub ahead of print].
Available from: https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-020-2405-7

The authors modelled and assessed the impact of non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) on Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) transmission in 11 European countries (Austria, Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany, Italy, Norway, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, United Kingdom).

Review of “Estimating the effects of non-pharmaceuticalinterventions on COVID-19 in Europe”

June 8, 2020

Block P, Hoffman M, Raabe IJ, Dowd JB, Rahal C, Kashyap R, et al. Social network-based distancing strategies to flatten the COVID-19 curve in a post-lockdown world. Nature Hum Behav. 2020 Jun 4 [Epub ahead of print].
Available from: https://doi.org/10.1038/s41562-020-0898-6

This study adopts a social network approach to evaluate the effectiveness of three distancing strategies designed to keep the curve flat and aid compliance in a post-lockdown world: limiting interaction to a few repeated contacts, seeking similarity across contacts and strengthening communities via triadic strategies.

Review of “Social network-based distancing strategies to flatten the COVID-19 curve in a post-lockdown world”

June, 4, 2020

Chu DK, Akl EA, Duda S, Solo K, Yaacoub S, Schünemann HJ, et al. Physical distancing, face masks, and eye protection to prevent person-to-person transmission of SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Lancet. 2020 Jun 1 [Epub ahead of print].
Available from: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(20)31142-9

This is a systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies on the protective effectiveness of physical distancing, face masks and eye protection from infection from Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS), Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) or Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19).

Review of “Physical distancing, face masks, and eye protection to prevent person-to-person transmission of SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19: a systematic review and meta-analysis”

May 28, 2020

Skowronski DM, Zou M, Clarke Q, Chambers C, Dickinson JA, Sabaiduc S, et al. Influenza vaccine does not increase the risk of coronavirus or other non-influenza respiratory viruses: retrospective analysis from Canada, 2010-11 to 2016-17. Clin Infect Dis. 2020
Available from: https://doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciaa626

This study addresses the hypothesis that influenza vaccination may increase the risk of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) by examining the relationship between influenza vaccination and the risk of non-influenza respiratory viruses (NIRV), including seasonal coronaviruses, in Canada from the 2010-11 season through the 2016-17 season.

Review of “Influenza vaccine does not increase the risk of coronavirus or other non-influenza respiratory viruses: retrospective analysis from Canada, 2010-11 to 2016-17”

May 24, 2020

Chandrashekar A, Liu J, Martinot AJ, McMahan K, Mercado ND, Peter L, et al. SARS-CoV-2 infection protects against rechallenge in rhesus macaques. Science. 2020 May 20 [Epub ahead of print].
Available from: https://doi.org/10.1126/science.abc4776

Using a rhesus macaque model of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), the authors explored whether primary infection induces a humoral and cellular immune response protective against reinfection.

Review of “SARS-CoV-2 infection protects against rechallenge in rhesus macaques”

Sood N, Simon P, Ebner P, Eichner D, Reynolds J, Bendavid E, et al. Seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2-specific antibodies among adults in Los Angeles County, California, on April 10-11, 2020. JAMA. 2020 May 18 [Epub ahead of print].
Available from: https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.2020.8279

This study uses antibody (Ab) testing to determine the point seroprevalence of COVID-19-specific Ab in Los Angeles County, California from April 10-14, 2020.

Review of “Seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2-specific antibodies among adults in Los Angeles County, California, on April 10- 11, 2020”

May 17, 2020

DeBiasi RL, Song X, Delaney M, Bell M, Smith K, Pershad J, et al. Severe COVID-19 in children and young adults in the Washington, DC metropolitan region. J Pediatr. 2020 May 13 [Epub ahead of print].
Available from: https://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpeds.2020.05.007

Medical records of 177 children and young adults with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) treated between Mar 15–Apr 30, 2020 at a medical centre in Washington, DC were retrospectively reviewed to determine any association between specific epidemiologic and clinical features with hospitalization and/or critical care.

Review of “Severe COVID-19 in children and young adults in the Washington, DC metropolitan region”

Verdoni L, Mazza A, Gervasoni A, Martelli L, Ruggeri M, Ciuffreda M, et al. An outbreak of severe Kawasaki-like disease at the Italian epicentre of the SARS-CoV-2 epidemic: an observational cohort study. Lancet. 2020 May 13 [Epub ahead of print].
Available from: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(20)31103-X

This study describes the clinical characteristics of Kawasaki-like disease in patients before (Group 1: January 1, 2015 to February 17, 2020) and during (Group 2: February 18, 2020 to April 20, 2020) the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) epidemic in Bergamo, Italy.

Review of “An outbreak of severe Kawasaki-like disease at the Italian epicentre of the SARS-CoV-2 epidemic: an observational cohort study”

May 13, 2020

Shekerdemian LS, Mahmood NR, Wolfe KK, Riggs BJ, Ross CE, McKiernan CA, et al. Characteristics and outcomes of children with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection admitted to US and Canadian pediatric intensive care units. JAMA Pediatr. 2020 May 11 [Epub ahead of print].
Available from: https://doi.org/10.1001/jamapediatrics.2020.1948

This study characterizes the demographic characteristics and clinical course of patients (N=48) with Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) admitted to pediatric intensive care units (PICUs) in North America from March 14 to April 3, 2020.

Review of "Characteristics and outcomes of children with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection admitted to US and Canadian pediatric intensive care units"

Li D, Jin M, Bao P, Zhao W, Zhang S. Clinical characteristics and results of semen tests among men with coronavirus disease 2019. JAMA Netw Open. 2020;3:e208292.
Available from: https://doi.org/10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2020.8292

The authors describe the detection of SARS-CoV-2 in semen specimens from a cohort of patients with confirmed coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in a hospital in Shangqiu, China.

Review of “Clinical characteristics and results of semen tests among men with coronavirus disease 2019”

May 6, 2020

Cheng HY, Jian SW, Liu DP, Ng TC, Huang WT, Lin HH. Contact tracing assessment of COVID-19 transmission dynamics in Taiwan and risk at different exposure periods before and after symptom onset. JAMA Intern Med. 2020 May 1 [Epub ahead of print].
Available from: https://doi.org/10.1001/jamainternmed.2020.2020

This study examined the transmission dynamics of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) among confirmed cases (n=100) and contacts (n=2,761) in Taiwan from January 15 to March 18, 2020.

Review of “Contact tracing assessment of COVID-19 transmission dynamics in Taiwan and risk at different exposure periods before and after symptom onset”

May 1, 2020

Wadhera RK, Wadhera P, Gaba P, Figueroa JF, Joynt Maddox KE, Yeh RW, et al. Variation in COVID-19 hospitalizations and deaths across New York City boroughs. JAMA. 2020 Apr 29 [Epub ahead of print].
Available from: https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.2020.7197

This study examined differences in rates of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) testing, hospitalizations and deaths among the 5 boroughs of New York City, NY, USA (i.e., Bronx, Brooklyn, Manhattan, Queens, and Staten Island).

Review of "Variation in COVID-19 hospitalizations and deaths across New York City boroughs"

April 30, 2020

Liu Y, Ning Z, Chen Y, Guo M, Liu Y, Gali NK, et al. Aerodynamic analysis of SARS-CoV-2 in two Wuhan hospitals. Nature. 2020 Apr 27 [Epub ahead of print].
Available from: https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-020-2271-3

The authors sampled total and size fractionated aerosols and aerosol deposition filters for genetic material of SARS-CoV-2, the etiologic agent of COVID-19.

Review of “Aerodynamic analysis of SARS-CoV-2 in two Wuhan hospitals”

April 28, 2020

Tostmann A, Bradley J, Bousema T, Yiek W, Holwerda M, Bleeker-Rovers C, et al. Strong associations and moderate predictive value of early symptoms for SARS-CoV-2 test positivity among healthcare workers, the Netherlands, March 2020. Euro Surveill. 25(16):2000508.
Available from: https://doi.org/10.2807/1560-7917.ES.2020.25.16.2000508

This study describes symptoms associated with a positive coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) test among a cohort of symptomatic healthcare workers in the Netherlands (March 10-29, 2020) and development of a diagnostic model to predict SARS-CoV-2 infection based on early symptoms.

Review of “Strong associations and moderate predictive value of early symptoms for SARS-CoV-2 test positivity among healthcare workers, the Netherlands, March 2020”

April 28, 2020

Hunter E, Price DA, Murphy E, van der Loeff, I. S., Baker KF, Lendrem D, et al. First experience of COVID-19 screening of health-care workers in England. Lancet. 2020 Apr 22 [Epub ahead of print].
Available from: https://dx.doi.org/10.1016/s0140-6736(20)30970-3

This study examines a screening program of symptomatic health care workers for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Newcastle, United Kingdom (March 10-31, 2020).

Review of “First experience of COVID-19 screening of health-care workers in England”

April 28, 2020

Arons MM, Hatfield KM, Reddy SC, Kimball A, James A, Jacobs JR, et al. Presymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infections and transmission in a skilled nursing facility. N Eng J Med. 2020 Apr 24 [Epub ahead of print].
Available from: https://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMoa2008457?query=C19

This study describes presymptomatic coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infections and transmission in a skilled nursing facility in King County, Washington.

Review of “Presymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infections and transmission in a skilled nursing facility”

April 24, 2020

Tobolowsky FA, Gonzales E, Self JL, Rao CY, Keating R, Marx GE, et al. COVID-19 outbreak among three affiliated homeless service sites — King County, Washington, 2020. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2020 Apr 22 [Epub ahead of print].
Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.15585/mmwr.mm6917e2

After a case of COVID-19 was confirmed in a resident at a homeless shelter in King County, Washington on March 30, 2020, active case finding activities were conducted at that shelter and two shelters that used that shelter’s day centre service.

Review of “COVID-19 outbreak among three affiliated homeless service sites — King County, Washington, 2020”

April 23, 2020

Spinato G, Fabbris C, Polesel J, Cazzador D, Borsetto D, Hopkins C, et al. Alterations in smell or taste in mildly symptomatic outpatients with SARS-CoV-2 infection. JAMA. 2020 Apr 22 [Epub ahead of print].
Available from: https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.2020.6771

This study examined the prevalence, onset and intensity of altered sense of smell or taste in patients with coronavirus disease (COVID-19) seen at a single hospital in Treviso, Italy.

Review of “Alterations in smell or taste in mildly symptomatic outpatients with SARS-CoV-2 infection”

April 22, 2020

Lu J, Gu J, Li K, Xu C, Su W, Lai Z, et al. COVID-19 outbreak associated with air conditioning in restaurant, Guangzhou, China, 2020. Emerg Infect Dis. 2020 Apr 2 [Epub ahead of print].
Available from: https://wwwnc.cdc.gov/eid/article/26/7/20-0764_article

The study reports on 3 COVID-19 family clusters that were linked back to a restaurant exposure on January 24th, 2020 in Guangzhou, China.

Review of “COVID-19 outbreak associated with air conditioning in restaurant, Guangzhou, China, 2020”

April 22, 2020

Li W, Zhang B, Lu J, Liu S, Chang Z, Cao P, et al. The characteristics of household transmission of COVID-19. Clin Infect Dis. 2020 Apr 17 [Epub ahead of print].
Available from: https://doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciaa450

This study examined household transmission dynamics of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in index patients (n=105) and household contacts (n=392) in Hubei province, China. The index patients (mean age 47 years) had a likely source of exposure outside of the home. When the index case was diagnosed and hospitalized, the close contacts were quarantined for 14 days in “special places” by the government. They were monitored daily for symptoms and swabbed at the beginning and half way through the quarantine period.

Review of “The characteristics of household transmission of COVID-19”

April 18, 2020

Kissler SM, Tedijanto C, Goldstein E, Grad YH, Lipsitch M. Projecting the transmission dynamics of SARS-CoV-2 through the postpandemic period. Science. 2020 Apr 14 [Epub ahead of print].
Available from: https://science.sciencemag.org/content/sci/early/2020/04/14/science.abb5793.full.pdf

The authors created a model to assess the impact of non-pharmaceutical intervention scenarios, such as social distancing, through the pandemic and post-pandemic periods.

Review of “Projecting the transmission dynamics of SARS-CoV-2 through the postpandemic period”

April 16, 2020

He X, Lau EHY, Wu P, Deng X, Wang J, Hao X, et al. Temporal dynamics in viral shedding and transmissibility of COVID-19. Nat Med. 2020 Apr 15 [Epub ahead of print].
Available from: https://doi.org/10.1038/s41591-020-0869-5

This study investigated the timing of viral shedding in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients (n=94) and modeled infectiousness patterns using infector-infectee transmission pairs (n=77) inside and outside China.

Review of “Temporal dynamics in viral shedding and transmissibility of COVID-19”

April 15, 2020

Tuite AR, Fisman DN, Greer AL. Mathematical modelling of COVID-19 transmission and mitigation strategies in the population of Ontario, Canada. CMAJ. 2020 Apr 8 [Epub ahead of print].
Available from: https://doi.org/10.1503/cmaj.200476

The authors developed a mathematical model of COVID-19 infection, and compared the potential effectiveness of non-pharmaceutical interventions applied for fixed periods compared to the same interventions applied dynamically based on intensive care unit (ICU) occupancy levels.

Review of “Mathematical modelling of COVID-19 transmission and mitigation strategies in the population of Ontario, Canada”

April 15, 2020

Pan A, Liu L, Wang C, Guo H, Hao X, Wang Q, et al. Association of public health interventions with the epidemiology of the COVID-19 outbreak in Wuhan, China. JAMA. 2020 Apr 10 [Epub ahead of print].
Available from: https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.2020.6130

This cohort study examined the association of public health interventions on the epidemiology of laboratory-confirmed coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) cases (n=32,583) reported in Wuhan, China from December 8, 2019 to March 8, 2020.

Review of “Association of public health interventions with the epidemiology of the COVID-19 outbreak in Wuhan, China”

April 12, 2020

Xu K, Chen Y, Yuan J, Yi P, Ding C, Wu W, et al. Factors associated with prolonged viral RNA shedding in patients with COVID-19. Clin Infect Dis. 2020 Apr 9 [Epub ahead of print].
Available from: https://doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciaa351
This retrospective cohort study examined risk factors for prolonged viral RNA shedding in 113 confirmed coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients from two hospitals outside of Hubei province, China. Review of “Factors associated with prolonged viral RNA shedding in patients with COVID-19”

April 12, 2020

Shi J, Wen Z, Zhong G, Yang H, Wang C, Huang B, et al. Susceptibility of ferrets, cats, dogs, and other domesticated animals to SARS-coronavirus 2. Science. 2020 Apr 8 [Epub ahead of print].
Available from: https://science.sciencemag.org/content/sci/early/2020/04/07/science.abb7015.full.pdf

This study investigated the susceptibility of laboratory (ferrets), companion (cats, dogs) and domestic animals (chickens, ducks, pigs) to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) virus.

Review of “Susceptibility of ferrets, cats, dogs, and other domesticated animals to SARS-coronavirus 2”

April 12, 2020

Garg S, Kim L, Whitaker M, O’Halloran A, Cummings C, Holstein R, et al. Hospitalization rates and characteristics of patients hospitalized with laboratory-confirmed coronavirus disease 2019 — COVID-NET, 14 states, March 1–30, 2020. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2020 Apr 8 [Epub ahead of print].
Available from: https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/69/wr/mm6915e3.htm?s_cid=mm6915e3_w
This report presents age-stratified laboratory-confirmed coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)-associated hospitalizations in the United States during March 1-30, 2020. Review of “Hospitalization rates and characteristics of patients hospitalized with laboratory-confirmed coronavirus disease 2019 — COVID-NET, 14 states, March 1–30, 2020”

April 8, 2020

CDC COVID-19 Response Team. Preliminary estimates of the prevalence of selected underlying health conditions among patients with coronavirus disease 2019 — United States, February 12–March 28, 2020. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2020 Mar 31 [Epub ahead of print].
Available from: https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/69/wr/mm6913e2.htm?s_cid=mm6913e2_w

This report presents preliminary estimates of the prevalence of underlying health conditions among patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in the United States, February 12 – March 28, 2020.

Review of “Preliminary estimates of the prevalence of selected underlying health conditions among patients with coronavirus disease 2019 — United States, February 12–March 28, 2020”

April 8, 2020

CDC COVID-19 Response Team. Coronavirus disease 2019 in children — United States, February 12–April 2, 2020. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2020 Apr 6 [Epub ahead of print].
Available from: https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/69/wr/mm6914e4.htm?s_cid=mm6914e4_w

The report describes the characteristics of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) cases among children aged <18 years between February 12 and April 2, 2020 in the United States.

Review of “Coronavirus disease 2019 in children — United States, February 12–April 2, 2020”

April 8, 2020

Bhatraju PK, Ghassemieh BJ, Nichols M, Kim R, Jerome KR, Nalla AK, et al. Covid-19 in critically ill patients in the Seattle region — case series. N Engl J Med. 2020 Mar 30 [Epub ahead of print].
Available from: https://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMoa2004500
This study provides a clinical description of 24 COVID-19 patients admitted to 9 Seattle area intensive care units between February 24 and March 9, 2020.

Review of “Covid-19 in critically ill patients in the Seattle region — case series”

April 7, 2020

Verity R, Okell LC, Dorigatti I, Winskill P, Whittaker C, Imai N, et al. Estimates of the severity of coronavirus disease 2019: a model-based analysis. Lancet Infect Dis. 2020 Mar 30 [Epub ahead of print].
Available from: https://doi.org/10.1016/S1473-3099(20)30243-7
This study estimated age-stratified case fatality ratios (CFRs) and infection fatality ratios (IFRs) for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Review of “Estimates of the severity of coronavirus disease 2019: a model-based analysis”

April 7, 2020

Sjödin H, Wilder-Smith A, Osman S, Farooq Z, Rocklöv J. Only strict quarantine measures can curb the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) outbreak in Italy, 2020. Euro Surveill. 2020;25(13):2000280.
Available from: https://doi.org/10.2807/1560-7917.ES.2020.25.13.2000280
This study investigated the level of physical distancing interventions required to effectively control a coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak in a small town setting typical of Italy. Review of “Only strict quarantine measures can curb the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) outbreak in Italy, 2020”

Zhao J, Yuan Q, Wang H, Liu W, Liao X, Su Y, et al. Antibody responses to SARS-CoV-2 in patients of novel coronavirus disease 2019. Clin Infect Dis. 2020 Mar 28 [Epub ahead of print].
Available from: https://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciaa344

A study investigating antibody responses in 173 COVID-19 patients.

Review of “Antibody responses to SARS-CoV-2 in patients of novel coronavirus disease 2019”

Kimball A, Hatfield KM, Arons M, James A, Taylor J, Spicer K, et al. Asymptomatic and Presymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 Infections in Residents of a Long-Term Care Skilled Nursing Facility — King County, Washington, March 2020. MMWR - Morbidity & Mortality Weekly Report. 2020 Mar 27 [Epub ahead of print].
Available from: https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/69/wr/mm6913e1.htm?s_cid=mm6913e1_&deliveryName=USCDC_921-DM24113

A study reporting the prevalence of asymptomatic and presymptomatic infection in a long term care home in Washington State, USA.

Review of “Asymptomatic and Presymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 Infections in Residents of a Long-Term Care Skilled Nursing Facility — King County, Washington, March 2020”

Wu JT, Leung K, Bushman M, Kishore N, Niehus R, de Salazar PM, et al. Estimating clinical severity of COVID-19 from the transmission dynamics in Wuhan, China. Nat Med. 2020 Mar 19 [Epub ahead of print].
Available from: https://doi.org/10.1038/s41591-020-0822-7

The authors estimated the symptomatic case fatality risk (sCFR; the probability of death after developing symptoms) of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) accounting for transmission dynamics in 48,557 cases and 2,169 deaths as of February 29, 2020 in Wuhan, China.

Review of “Estimating clinical severity of COVID-19 from the transmission dynamics in Wuhan, China”

Lam TT, Shum MH, Zhu H, Tong Y, Ni X, Liao Y, et al. Identifying SARS-CoV-2 related coronaviruses in Malayan pangolins. Nature. 2020 Mar 26 [Epub ahead of print].
Available from: https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-020-2169-0

A study describing a genomic and phylogenetic analysis to investigate pangolins as possible hosts for COVID-19 virus.

Review of “Identifying SARS-CoV-2 related coronaviruses in Malayan pangolins”

Shi S, Qin M, Shen B, Cai Y, Liu T, Yang F, et al. Association of cardiac injury with mortality in hospitalized patients with COVID-19 in Wuhan, China. JAMA Cardiol. 2020 Mar 25 [Epub ahead of print].
Available from: https://doi.org/10.1001/jamacardio.2020.0950

A study estimating the association between cardiac injury and mortality in hospitalized patients with COVID-19 in Wuhan, China.

Review of “Association of cardiac injury with mortality in hospitalized patients with COVID-19 in Wuhan, China”
Onder G, Rezza G, Brusaferro S. Case-fatality rate and characteristics of patients dying in relation to COVID-19 in Italy. JAMA. 2020 Mar 23 [Epub ahead of print].
Available from: https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.2020.4683

A study estimating the case fatality rate among confirmed COVID-19 cases in Italy.

Review of “Case-fatality rate and characteristics of patients dying in relation to COVID-19 in Italy”

Guo L, Ren L, Yang S, Xiao M, Chang, Yang F, et al. Profiling early humoral response to diagnose novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19). Clin Infect Dis. 2020 Mar 21 [Epub ahead of print].
Available from: https://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciaa310

A study examining antibody production in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients and the potential role of serology in diagnosis.

Review of “Profiling early humoral response to diagnose novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19)”

McMichael TM, Clark S, Pogosjans S, Kay M, Lewis J, Baer A, et al. COVID-19 in a long-term care facility — King County, Washington, February 27–March 9, 2020. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2020 Mar 18 [Epub ahead of print].
Available from: https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/69/wr/mm6912e1.htm

A report describing a COVID-19 outbreak in two long-term care facilities in Washington state.

Review of “COVID-19 in a long-term care facility — King County, Washington, February 27–March 9, 2020”

Li R, Pei S, Chen B, Song Y, Zhang T, Yang W, et al. Substantial undocumented infection facilitates the rapid dissemination of novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV2). Science. 2020 Mar 16 [Epub ahead of print].
Available from: https://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.abb3221

A study estimating the proportion of undocumented COVID-19 infection in China before and after the implementation of control measures.

Review of “Substantial undocumented infection facilitates the rapid dissemination of novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV2)”

Liu Y, Yan L, Wan L, Xiang T, Le A, Liu J, et al. Viral dynamics in mild and severe cases of COVID-19. Lancet Infect Dis. 2020 Mar 19 [Epub ahead of print].
Available from: https://doi.org/10.1016/S1473-3099(20)30232-2

An article describing the viral dynamics in mild and severe cases of COVID-19.

Review of “Viral dynamics in mild and severe cases of COVID-19”

Dong Y, Mo X, Hu Y, Qi X, Jiang F, Jiang Z, et al. Epidemiological characteristics of 2143 pediatric patients with 2019 coronavirus disease in China. Pediatrics. 2020 Mar 16 [Epub ahead of print].
Available from: https://dx.doi.org/10.1542/peds.2020-0702

An article describing the characteristics of 2,143 children infected with COVID-19.

Review of “Epidemiological characteristics of 2143 pediatric patients with 2019 coronavirus disease in China”

CDC COVID-19 Response Team. Severe outcomes among patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) — United States, February 12–March 16, 2020. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2020 Mar 18 [Epub ahead of print].
Available from: https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/69/wr/mm6912e2.htm

A report on the severity of COVID-19 in the United States by age group.

Review of “Severe outcomes among patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) — United States, February 12–March 16, 2020”

van Doremalen N, Bushmaker T, Morris DH, Holbrook MG, Gamble A, Williamson BN, et al. Aerosol and surface stability of SARS-CoV-2 as compared with SARS-CoV-1. N Engl J Med. 2020 Mar 17 [Epub ahead of print].
Available from: https://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMc2004973

An article describing an analysis of the stability of COVID-19 virus in various surfaces and in aerosols.

Review of “Aerosol and surface stability of SARS-CoV-2 as compared with SARS-CoV-1”

March 19, 2020

Ran L, Chen X, Wang Y, Wu W, Zhang L, Tan X. Risk factors of healthcare workers with corona virus disease 2019: a retrospective cohort study in a designated hospital of Wuhan in China. Clin Infect Dis. 2020 Mar 17 [Epub ahead of print].
Available from: https://doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciaa287
An article describing risk factors associated with COVID-19 infection in health care workers. Review of “Risk factors of healthcare workers with corona virus disease 2019: a retrospective cohort study in a designated hospital of Wuhan in China”
Ng K, Poon BH, Kiat Puar TH, Shan Quah JL, Loh WJ, Wong YJ, et al. COVID-19 and the risk to health care workers: a case report. Ann Intern Med. 2020 Mar 16 [Epub ahead of print].
Available from: https://dx.doi.org/10.7326/l20-0175

A report describing the exposure of 41 health care workers to an undiagnosed COVID-19 patient.

Review of “COVID-19 and the risk to health care workers: a case report”

March 17, 2020

Mizumoto K, Chowell G. Estimating risk for death from 2019 novel coronavirus disease, China, January–February 2020. Emerg Infect Dis. 2020 Mar 13 [Epub ahead of print].
Available from: https://wwwnc.cdc.gov/eid/article/26/6/20-0233_article
A study estimating the case fatality ratio in China, adjusting for the time between hospitalization and death. Review of “Estimating risk for death from 2019 novel coronavirus disease, China, January–February 2020”

March 17, 2020

Mizumoto K, Kagaya K, Zarebski A, Chowell G. Estimating the asymptomatic proportion of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) cases on board the Diamond Princess cruise ship, Yokohama, Japan, 2020. Euro Surveill. 2020;25(10):2000180.
Available from: https://www.eurosurveillance.org/content/10.2807/1560-7917.ES.2020.25.10.2000180
A study describing cases of COVID-19 on the Diamond Princess cruise ship, including the proportion of asymptomatic infections. Review of “Estimating the asymptomatic proportion of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) cases on board the Diamond Princess cruise ship, Yokohama, Japan, 2020”

March 17, 2020

Liu W, Zhang Q, Chen J, Xiang R, Song H, Shu S, et al. Detection of COVID-19 in children in early January 2020 in Wuhan, China. N Engl J Med. 2020 Mar 12 [Epub ahead of print].
Available from: https://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMc2003717
A retrospective analysis of 366 hospitalized pediatric COVID-19 patients. Review of “Detection of COVID-19 in children in early January 2020 in Wuhan, China”

March 16, 2020

Wang W, Xu Y, Gao R, Lu R, Han K, Wu G, et al. Detection of SARS-CoV-2 in different types of clinical specimens. JAMA. 2020 Mar 11 [Epub ahead of print].
Available from: https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jama/article-abstract/2762997
This article describes the detection of virus from different sample types from COVID-19 patients. Review of “Detection of SARS-CoV-2 in different types of clinical specimens”

March 16, 2020

Kucharski AJ, Russell TW, Diamond C, Liu Y, Edmunds J, Funk S, et al. Early dynamics of transmission and control of COVID-19: a mathematical modelling study. Lancet Infect Dis. 2020 Mar 11 [Epub ahead of print].
Available from: https://www.thelancet.com/journals/laninf/article/PIIS1473-3099(20)30144-4/fulltext
This article describes a mathematical model estimating transmission of COVID-19. Review of “Early dynamics of transmission and control of COVID-19: a mathematical modelling study”

March 16, 2020

Hu Z, Song C, Xu C, Jin G, Chen Y, Xu X, et al. Clinical characteristics of 24 asymptomatic infections with COVID-19 screened among close contacts in Nanjing, China. Science China Life Sciences. 2020 Mar 04 [Epub ahead of print].
Available from: https://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11427-020-1661-4
A study describing the epidemiological characteristics of 24 COVID-19 cases with asymptomatic infection. Review of “Clinical characteristics of 24 asymptomatic infections with COVID-19 screened among close contacts in Nanjing, China”

March 13, 2002

Marchand-Senecal X, Kozak R, Mubareka S, Salt N, Gubbay JB, Eshaghi A, et al. Diagnosis and management of first case of COVID-19 in Canada: lessons applied from SARS. Clin Infect Dis. 2020 Mar 9 [Epub ahead of print].
Available from: https://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciaa227
The authors describe the diagnosis and management of the first case of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Canada including control measures applied based on lessons from SARS. Review of “Diagnosis and management of first case of COVID-19 in Canada: lessons applied from SARS”

March 13, 2020

Lauer SA, Grantz KH, Bi Q, Jones FK, Zheng Q, Meredith HR, et al. The incubation period of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) from publicly reported confirmed cases: estimation and application. Ann Intern Med. 2020 Mar 10 [Epub ahead of print].
Available from: https://dx.doi.org/10.7326/m20-0504
The authors estimate the incubation period for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) from publicly reported confirmed cases and describe its public health implications. Review of “The incubation period of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) from publicly reported confirmed cases: estimation and application”

March 12, 2020

Zhou F, Yu T, Du R, Fan G, Liu Y, Liu Z, et al. Clinical course and risk factors for mortality of adult inpatients with COVID-19 in Wuhan, China: a retrospective cohort study. The Lancet. 2020 Mar 11 [Epub ahead of print].
Available from: https://www.thelancet.com/journals/lancet/article/PIIS0140-6736(20)30566-3/fulltext
A retrospective cohort study describing clinical characteristics of 191 adults hospitalized with COVID-19 in Wuhan, China, as well as risk factors for inpatient mortality. Review of “Clinical course and risk factors for mortality of adult inpatients with COVID-19 in Wuhan, China: a retrospective cohort study”

March 12, 2020

Liu Y, Chen H, Tang K, Guo Y. Clinical manifestations and outcome of SARS-CoV-2 infection during pregnancy. J Infect. 2020 Mar 4 [Epub ahead of print].
Available from: https://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jinf.2020.02.028
A letter describing clinical manifestations and perinatal outcomes of COVID-19 infection during pregnancy in 13 hospitalized patients in China. Review of “ Clinical manifestations and outcome of SARS-CoV-2 infection during pregnancy”

March 11, 2020

Shen Z, Xiao Y, Kang L, Ma W, Shi L, Zhang L, et al. Genomic diversity of SARS-CoV-2 in coronavirus disease 2019 patients. Clin Infect Dis. 2020 Mar 4 [Epub ahead of print].
Available from: https://academic.oup.com/cid/advance-article/doi/10.1093/cid/ciaa203/5780800
An investigation of the intra-host diversity of COVID-19 and microbiota using bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from eight confirmed cases in Wuhan, China. Review of “Genomic diversity of SARS-CoV-2 in coronavirus disease 2019 patients”

March 11, 2020

Lin M, Beliavsky A, Katz K, Powis JE, Ng W, Williams V, et al. What can early Canadian experience screening for COVID-19 teach us about how to prepare for a pandemic? CMAJ. 2020 Mar 6 [Epub ahead of print].
Available from: https://dx.doi.org/10.1503/cmaj.200305
A study examining the early experiences investigating COVID-19 persons under investigation in hospitals in the greater Toronto area. Review of “What can early Canadian experience screening for COVID-19 teach us about how to prepare for a pandemic?”

March 11, 2020

Hoffmann M, Kleine-Weber H, Schroeder S, Kruger N, Herrler T, Erichsen S, et al. SARS-CoV-2 cell entry depends on ACE2 and TMPRSS2 and is blocked by a clinically proven protease inhibitor. Cell. 2020 Mar 4 [Epub ahead of print].
Available from: https://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cell.2020.02.052
A study examining how COVID-19 gains entry into human cells. Review of “SARS-CoV-2 cell entry depends on ACE2 and TMPRSS2 and is blocked by a clinically proven protease inhibitor”

March 9, 2020

Spiteri G, Fielding J, Diercke M, Campese C, Enouf V, Gaymard A, et al. First cases of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in the WHO European Region, 24 January to 21 February 2020. Euro Surveill. 2020;25(9):2000178.
Available from: https://www.eurosurveillance.org/content/10.2807/1560-7917.ES.2020.25.9.2000178
A study describing the characteristics of the first cases reported by countries in the WHO European Region from January 24-February 21, 2020. Review of “First cases of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in the WHO European Region, 24 January to 21 February 2020”

March 9, 2020

Cheng VCC, Wong SC, Chen JHK, Yip CCY, Chuang VWM, Tsang OTY, et al. Escalating infection control response to the rapidly evolving epidemiology of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) due to SARS-CoV-2 in Hong Kong. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2020 Mar 5 [Epub ahead of print].
Available from: https://dx.doi.org/10.1017/ice.2020.58
A description of the infection control measures implemented in hospitals in Hong Kong as soon as a cluster of pneumonia cases in Wuhan, China was reported. Review of “Escalating infection control response to the rapidly evolving epidemiology of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) due to SARS-CoV-2 in Hong Kong”

March 6, 2020

Young BE, Ong SWX, Kalimuddin S, Low JG, Tan SY, Loh J, et al. Epidemiologic features and clinical course of patients infected with SARS-CoV-2 in Singapore. JAMA. 2020 Mar 3 [Epub ahead of print].
Available from: https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jama/fullarticle/2762688
A descriptive case series of the first 18 patients infected with COVID-19 in Singapore. Review of “Epidemiologic features and clinical course of patients infected with SARS-CoV-2 in Singapore”

March 6, 2020

Ong SWX, Tan YK, Chia PY, Lee TH, Ng OT, Wong MSY, et al Air, surface environmental, and personal protective equipment contamination by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) from a symptomatic patient. JAMA. 2020 Mar 4 [Epub ahead of print].
Available from: https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jama/fullarticle/2762692
A research letter reporting on environmental samples taken from the airborne infection isolation rooms of three patients with COVID-19. Review of “Air, surface environmental, and personal protective equipment contamination by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) from a symptomatic patient”

March 6, 2020

Nishiura H, Linton NM, Akhmetzhanov AR. Serial interval of novel coronavirus (COVID-19) infections. Int J Infect Dis. 2020 Mar 4 [Epub ahead of print].
Available from: https://www.ijidonline.com/article/S1201-9712(20)30119-3/fulltext
Estimation of the serial interval of COVID-19. Review of “Serial interval of novel coronavirus (COVID-19) infections”

March 5, 2020

Ruan Q, Yang K, Wang W, Jiang L, Song J. Clinical predictors of mortality due to COVID-19 based on an analysis of data of 150 patients from Wuhan, China. Intensive Care Med. 2020 Mar 3 [Epub ahead of print].
Available from: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs00134-020-05991-x
A study describing the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of 150 hospitalized COVID-19 patients in Wuhan, China. Review of “Clinical predictors of mortality due to COVID-19 based on an analysis of data of 150 patients from Wuhan, China”

March 4, 2020

Kam K, Yung CF, Cui L, Lin Tzer Pin R, Mak TM, Maiwald M, et al. A well infant with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) with high viral load. Clin Infect Dis. 2020 Feb 28 [Epub ahead of print].
Available from: https://academic.oup.com/cid/advance-article/doi/10.1093/cid/ciaa201/5766416
A description of a COVID-19 infection in a well infant with a high viral load. Review of “A well infant with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) with high viral load”

March 3, 2020

Hellewell J, Abbott S, Gimma A, Bosse NI, Jarvis CI, Russell TW, et al. Feasibility of controlling COVID-19 outbreaks by isolation of cases and contacts. Lancet Global Health. 2020 Feb 28 [Epub ahead of print].
Available from: https://www.thelancet.com/journals/langlo/article/PIIS2214-109X(20)30074-7/fulltext
A mathematical model examining the probability that an introduction of COVID-19 cases into a population could be controlled. Review of “Feasibility of controlling COVID-19 outbreaks by isolation of cases and contacts”

March 3, 2020

Guan W, Ni Z, Hu Y, Liang W, Ou C, He J, et al. Clinical characteristics of coronavirus disease 2019 in China. N Engl J Med. 2020 Feb 28 [Epub ahead of print].
Available from: https://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMoa2002032
Clinical characteristics of 1,099 cases of COVID-19 infection in China. Review of “Clinical characteristics of coronavirus disease 2019 in China”

March 3, 2020

Cai J, Xu J, Lin D, Yang z, Xu L, Qu Z, et al. A case series of children with 2019 novel coronavirus infection: clinical and epidemiological features. Clin Infect Dis. 2020 Feb 28 [Epub ahead of print].
Available from: https://academic.oup.com/cid/advance-article/doi/10.1093/cid/ciaa198/5766430
A case series of 10 children infected with COVID-19. Review of “A case series of children with 2019 novel coronavirus infection: clinical and epidemiological features”

March 2, 2020

Lan L, Xu D, Ye G, Xia C, Wang S, Li Y, et al. Positive RT-PCR test results in patients recovered from COVID-19. JAMA. 2020 Feb 27 [Epub ahead of print].
Available from: https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jama/fullarticle/2762452
A study reporting positive RT-PCR test results in patients recovered from COVID-19. Review of “Positive RT-PCR test results in patients recovered from COVID-19”

March 2, 2020

Bordi L, Nicastri E, Scorzolini L, Di Caro A, Capobianchi MR, Castilletti C, et al. Differential diagnosis of illness in patients under investigation for the novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2), Italy, February 2020. Euro Surveill. 2020;25(8):2000170.
Available from: https://www.eurosurveillance.org/content/10.2807/1560-7917.ES.2020.25.8.2000170
A study describing laboratory detection of various respiratory pathogens for the first 126 patients tested for COVID-19 in Italy. Review of “Differential diagnosis of illness in patients under investigation for the novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2), Italy, February 2020”

February 28, 2020

Chen Q, Liang M, Li Y, Guo J, Fei D, Wang L, et al. Mental health care for medical staff in China during the COVID-19 outbreak. Lancet Psychiatry. 2020 Feb 18 [Epub ahead of print].
Available from: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S221503662030078X
A study describing psychological interventions for healthcare workers caring for COVID-19 patients. Review of “Mental health care for medical staff in China during the COVID-19 outbreak”

February 27, 2020

Tay J, Lim PL, Marimuthu K, Sadarangani SP, Ling LM, Ang BSP, et al. De-isolating COVID-19 suspect cases: a continuing challenge. Clin Infect Dis. 2020 Feb 26 [Epub ahead of print].
Available from: https://academic.oup.com/cid/advance-article/doi/10.1093/cid/ciaa179/5758073
This research letter describes the challenges of de-isolating a suspect case of COVID-19 and offers an algorithm for decision making.

Review of “De-isolating COVID-19 suspect cases: a continuing challenge”

February 27, 2020

Ji Y, Ma Z, Peppelenbosch MP, Pan Q. Potential association between COVID-19 mortality and health-care resource availability. Lancet Global Health. 2020 Feb 25 [Epub ahead of print].
Available from: https://www.thelancet.com/journals/langlo/article/PIIS2214-109X(20)30068-1/fulltext

A study describing a potential association between COVID-19 mortality and health care resource availability demonstrating a correlation between COVID-19 cases and mortality in provinces in China.

Review of “Potential association between COVID-19 mortality and health-care resource availability”

February 26, 2020

Pan Y, Zhang D, Yang P, Poon LLM, Wang Q. Viral load of SARS-CoV-2 in clinical samples. Lancet Inf Dis. 2020 Feb 24 [Epub ahead of print].
Available from: https://www.thelancet.com/journals/laninf/article/PIIS1473-3099(20)30113-4/fulltext
A study reporting on COVID-19 viral loads from various specimen types collected from 82 patients. Review of “Viral load of SARS-CoV-2 in clinical samples”

February 25, 2020

Tong Z-D, Tang A, Li K-F, Li P, Wang H-L, Yi J-P, et al. Potential presymptomatic transmission of SARS-CoV-2, Zhejiang Province, China, 2020. Emerg Infect Dis. 2020 Feb 24 [Epub ahead of print].
Available from: https://wwwnc.cdc.gov/eid/article/26/5/20-0198_article
A report on a cluster of cases with possible presymptomatic transmission. Review of “Potential presymptomatic transmission of SARS-CoV-2, Zhejiang Province, China, 2020”

February 25, 2020

Bai Y, Yao L, Wei T, Tian F, Jin D, Chen L, et al. Presumed asymptomatic carrier transmission of COVID-19. JAMA. 2020 Feb 21 [Epub ahead of print].
Available from: https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jama/fullarticle/2762028
A report of a familial cluster with possible asymptomatic transmission. Review of “Presumed asymptomatic carrier transmission of COVID-19”

February 24, 2020

Zou L, Ruan F, Huang M, Liang L, Huang H, Hong Z, et al. SARS-CoV-2 viral load in upper respiratory specimens of infected patients. N Engl J Med. 2020 Feb 19 [Epub ahead of print].
Available from: https://www.nejm.org/doi/pdf/10.1056/NEJMc2001737
Description of viral loads and clinical course of 18 COVID-19 patients. Review of “SARS-CoV-2 viral load in upper respiratory specimens of infected patients”

February 24, 2020

Yang X, Yu Y, Xu J, Shu H, Xia J, Liu H, et al. Clinical course and outcomes of critically ill patients with SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia in Wuhan, China: a single-centered, retrospective, observational study. Lancet Respir Med. 2020 Feb 21 [Epub ahead of print]. Available from: https://www.thelancet.com/lancet/article/S2213-2600(20)30079-5 A study describing the clinical outcomes of 52 patients critically ill with COVID-19. Review of “Clinical course and outcomes of critically ill patients with SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia in Wuhan, China: a single-centered, retrospective, observational study”
February 21, 2020 Pan X, Chen D, Xia Y, Wu X, Li T, Ou X, et al. Asymptomatic cases in a family cluster with SARS-CoV-2 infection. Lancet. 2020 Feb 19 [Epub ahead of print].
Available from: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1473309920301146
Description of a family cluster of COVID-19, in which two patients were asymptomatic. Review of “Asymptomatic cases in a family cluster with SARS-CoV-2 infection”

February 20, 2020

Hoehl S, Berger A, Kortenbusch M, Cinatl J, Bojkova D, Rabenau H, et al. Evidence of SARS-CoV-2 infection in returning travelers from Wuhan, China. N Engl J Med. 2020 Feb 18 [Epub ahead of print].
Available from: https://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMc2001899 
A report of two patients diagnosed with COVID-19 who were afebrile and asymptomatic. Review of “Evidence of SARS-CoV-2 infection in returning travelers from Wuhan, China”

February 19, 2020

Yu P, Zhu J, Zhang Z, Han Y, Huang L. A familial cluster of infection associated with the 2019 novel coronavirus indicating potential person-to-person transmission during the incubation period. J Infect Dis. 2020 Feb 18 [Epub ahead of print].
Available from: https://academic.oup.com/jid/advance-article/doi/10.1093/infdis/jiaa077/5739751
A report of a familial cluster of infection with potential asymptomatic transmission during the COVID-19 incubation period. Review of “A familial cluster of infection associated with the 2019 novel coronavirus indicating potential person-to-person transmission during the incubation period”

February 19, 2020

Wei M, Yuan J, Liu Y, Fu T, Yu X, Zhang Z. Novel coronavirus infection in hospitalized infants under 1 year of age in China. JAMA. 2020 Feb 14 [Epub ahead of print].
Available from: https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jama/fullarticle/2761659 

Report on hospitalized infants diagnosed with COVID-19.

Review of “Novel coronavirus infection in hospitalized infants under 1 year of age in China”

February 19, 2020

Novel Coronavirus Pneumonia Emergency Response Epidemiology Team. The epidemiological characteristics of an outbreak of 2019 novel coronavirus diseases (COVID-19) – China, 2020. CCDC Weekly. 2020;2(x):1-10.
Available from: https://github.com/cmrivers/ncov/raw/master/COVID-19.pdf 
Descriptive analysis of 72,314 cases of COVID-19 in China. Review of “The epidemiological characteristics of an outbreak of 2019 novel coronavirus diseases (COVID-19) – China, 2020”

February 18, 2020

Silverstein WK, Stroud L, Cleghorn GE, Leis JA. First imported case of 2019 novel coronavirus in Canada, presenting as mild pneumonia. The Lancet. 2020 Feb 13 [Epub ahead of print].
Available from: https://www.thelancet.com/journals/lancet/article/PIIS0140-6736(20)30370-6/fulltext
Case report of first imported case of COVID-19 in Canada. Review of “First imported case of 2019 novel coronavirus in Canada, presenting as mild pneumonia”

February 18, 2020

Du Z, Wang L, Chauchemez S, Xu X, Wang X, Cowling BJ, et al. Risk for transportation of 2019 novel coronavirus disease from Wuhan to other cities in China. Emerg Infect Dis. 2020 Feb 13 [Epub ahead of print].
Available from: https://wwwnc.cdc.gov/eid/article/26/5/20-0146_article

Estimation of the probability of COVID-19 exportation from Wuhan prior to quarantine.

Review of “Risk for transportation of 2019 novel coronavirus disease from Wuhan to other cities in China”

February 14, 2020

Chen H, Guo J, Wang C, Luo F, Yu X, Zhang W, et al. Clinical characteristics and intrauterine vertical transmission potential of COVID-19 infection in nine pregnant women: a retrospective review of medical records. Lancet. 2020 Feb 12 [Epub ahead of print].
Available from: https://www.thelancet.com/journals/lancet/article/PIIS0140-6736(20)30360-3/fulltext
Retrospective examination of nine pregnant women infected with COVID-19 to evaluate the clinical characteristics of mothers and infants, as well as transmission potential.

Review of “Clinical characteristics and intrauterine vertical transmission potential of COVID-19 infection in nine pregnant women: a retrospective review of medical records”

February 11, 2020

Chang D, Lin M, Wei L, Xie L, Zhu G, Dela Cruz CS, et al. Epidemiologic and clinical characteristics of novel coronavirus infections involving 13 patients outside Wuhan, China. JAMA. 2020 Feb 07 [Epub ahead of print].
Available from: https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jama/fullarticle/2761043
Description of epidemiological and early clinical characteristics of 13 patients hospitalized in Beijing, China with confirmed 2019-nCoV. Review of “Epidemiologic and clinical characteristics of novel coronavirus infections involving 13 patients outside Wuhan, China”

February 11, 2020

Ceraolo C, Giorgi FM. Genomic variance of the 2019-nCoV coronavirus. J Med Virol. 2020 Feb 6 [Epub ahead of print].
Available from: https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/jmv.25700

Genomic and proteomic comparison of 56 2019-nCoV genomes to other coronaviruses.

Review of “Genomic variance of the 2019-nCoV coronavirus”

February 10, 2020

Wang D, Hu B, Hu C, Zhu F, Liu X, Zhang J, et al. Clinical characteristics of 138 hospitalized patients with 2019 novel coronavirus–infected pneumonia in Wuhan, China. JAMA. 2020 Feb 07 [Epub ahead of print].
Available from: https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jama/fullarticle/2761044
This study provides a clinical and epidemiological description of the characteristics of 138 patients hospitalized in Wuhan with 2019-nCoV pneumonia. Review of “Clinical characteristics of 138 hospitalized patients with 2019 novel coronavirus–infected pneumonia in Wuhan, China”

February 10, 2020

Quilty BJ, Clifford S, CMMID nCoV working group, Flasche S, Eggo RM. Effectiveness of airport screening at detecting travellers infected with novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV). Eurosurveillance. 2020;25(5):2000080. 
Available from: https://www.eurosurveillance.org/content/10.2807/1560-7917.ES.2020.25.5.2000080
This study estimates the effectiveness of airport entry and exit screening for 2019-nCoV. Review of “Effectiveness of airport screening at detecting travellers infected with novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV)”

February 10, 2020

De Salazar PM, Niehus R, Taylor A, Buckee CO, Lipsitch M. Using predicted imports of 2019-nCoV cases to determine locations that may not be identifying all imported cases. medRxiv. 2020 Feb 05 [Epub ahead of print].
Available from: https://www.medrxiv.org/content/10.1101/2020.02.04.20020495v1

This study utilizes air travel volume data from Wuhan to international destinations to predict the expected case counts outside China. Review of “Using predicted imports of 2019-nCoV cases to determine locations that may not be identifying all imported cases”

February 7, 2020

Zhou P, Yang X, Wang X, Hu B, Zhang L, Zhang W, et al. A pneumonia outbreak associated with a new coronavirus of probable bat origin. Nature. 2020 Feb 03 [Epub ahead of print].
Available from: https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-020-2012-7
Laboratory test results on oral swab, anal swab, blood PCR and serology from five patients 18-29 days post onset. Genomic sequencing results also presented. Review of “A pneumonia outbreak associated with a new coronavirus of probable bat origin”

February 7, 2020

Tuite AR, Fisman DN. Reporting, epidemic growth, and reproduction numbers for the 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) epidemic. Ann Intern Med. 2020 Feb 5 [Epub ahead of print].
Available from: https://annals.org/aim/fullarticle/2760912/reporting-epidemic-growth-reproduction-numbers-2019-novel-coronavirus-2019-ncov
This study utilizes existing data to investigate the changing nature of case ascertainment, reporting lags, and effective reproductive numbers. Review of “Reporting, epidemic growth, and reproduction numbers for the 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) epidemic”

February 4, 2020

Holshue ML, DeBolt C, Lindquist S, Lofy KH, Wiesman J, Bruce H, et al. First case of 2019 novel coronavirus in the United States. N Engl J Med. 2020 Jan 31 [Epub ahead of print].
Available from: https://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMoa2001191
Detailed report of first case reported in the United States. RNA was detected in a fecal sample.

Review of “First case of 2019 novel coronavirus in the United States”

February 3, 2020

Zhu N, Zhang D, Wang W, Li X, Yang B, Song J, et al. A novel coronavirus from patients with pneumonia in China, 2019. N Engl J Med. 2020 Jan 24 [Epub ahead of print].
Available from: https://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMoa2001017

Whole genome sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of samples from three patients identified with 2019-nCoV. The virus was distinct from SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV, but similar to a bat SARS-like CoV.

Review of "A novel coronavirus from patients with pneumonia in China, 2019"
February 3, 2020 Wu JT, Leung K, Leung GM. Nowcasting and forecasting the potential domestic and international spread of the 2019-nCoV outbreak originating in Wuhan, China: a modelling study. Lancet. 2020 Jan 31 [Epub ahead of print].
Available from: https://www.thelancet.com/lancet/article/nowcasting-and-forecasting
Modeling study that uses the number of exported cases and travel patterns to estimate the impact of the outbreak in Wuhan and other major cities in China, as well as estimating the impact of control measures. Review of "Nowcasting and forecasting the potential domestic and international spread of the 2019-nCoV outbreak originating in Wuhan, China: a modelling study"

February 3, 2020

Wang W, Tang J, Wei F. Updated understanding of the outbreak of 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) in Wuhan, China. J Med Virol. 2020 Jan 29 [Epub ahead of print].
Available from: https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/jmv.25689
Website searches revealed 1,975 cases and 56 deaths for a case fatality rate of 2.84%. Information on the 17 fatal cases is provided in this article. Review of "Updated understanding of the outbreak of 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) in Wuhan, China"

February 3, 2020

Phan LT, Nguyen TV, Luong QC, Nguyen TV, Nguyen HT, Le HQ, et al. Importation and human-to-human transmission of a novel coronavirus in Vietnam. N Engl J Med. 2020 Jan 28 [Epub ahead of print].
Available from: https://www.nejm.org/doi/10.1056/NEJMc2001272

Report of transmission from a father from Wuhan who visits his son in Vietnam and transmits novel coronavirus to his son within three days of the father’s arrival in Vietnam. Review of "Importation and human-to-human transmission of a novel coronavirus in Vietnam"

February 3, 2020

Corman VM, Landt O, Kaiser M, Molenkamp R, Meijer A, Chu DKW, et al. Detection of 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) by real-time RT-PCR. Eurosurveillance. 2020 Jan 23;25:2000045.
Available from: https://www.eurosurveillance.org/content/10.2807/1560-7917.ES.2020.25.3.2000045

Evaluation of a RT-PCR assay for the detection of 2019-nCoV.

Review of "Detection of 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) by real-time RT-PCR."

February 3, 2020

Chen N, Zhou M, Dong X, Qu J, Gong F, Han Y, et al. Epidemiological and clinical characteristics of 99 cases of 2019 novel coronavirus pneumonia in Wuhan, China: a descriptive study. Lancet. 2020 Jan 29 [Epub ahead of print].
Available from: https://www.thelancet.com/pb-assets/Lancet/pdfs/S0140673620302117.pdf
Case series of 99 patients hospitalized with the 2019 novel coronavirus in one hospital in Wuhan, China from January 1-20, 2020. Review of "Epidemiological and clinical characteristics of 99 cases of 2019 novel coronavirus pneumonia in Wuhan, China: a descriptive study"
Updated

Rothe C, Schunk M, Sothmann P, Bretzel G, Froeschl G, Wallrauch C, et al. Transmission of 2019-nCoV infection from an asymptomatic contact in Germany. N Engl J Med. 2020 Jan 30 [Epub ahead of print].
Available from: https://www.nejm.org/doi/10.1056/NEJMc2001468

Correspondence regarding possible transmission during the incubation period in Germany; subsequent information to suggest the index case was symptomatic and not in the incubation period and details of symptom development in the index case now available.

Review of "Transmission of 2019-nCoV infection from an asymptomatic contact in Germany"

January 31, 2020

Read JM, Bridgen JRE, Cummings DAT, Ho A, Jewell CP. Novel coronavirus 2019-nCoV: early estimation of epidemiological parameters and epidemic predictions. medRxiv. 2020 Jan 28 [Epub ahead of print].
Available from: https://www.medrxiv.org/content/10.1101/2020.01.23.20018549v2

Model to estimate epidemiologic parameters including the basic reproductive number (estimated at 3.1).

Review of "Novel coronavirus 2019-nCoV: early estimation of epidemiological parameters and epidemic predictions"

January 31, 2020 Lu R, Zhao X, Li J, Niu P, Yang B, Wu H, et al. Genomic characterisation and epidemiology of 2019 novel coronavirus: implications for virus origins and receptor binding. Lancet. 2020 Jan 29 [Epub ahead of print].
Available from: https://www.thelancet.com/pb-assets/Lancet/pdfs/S0140673620302518.pdf

Genomic analysis of ten 2019-nCoV sequences from nine patient (eight with Huanan Seafood market exposure), and comparison to SARS-CoV, bat SARS-like CoVs and MERS-CoV. Genome sequencing suggest a common source for the cases. The virus was most closely related to a bat SARS-like CoV.

Review of "Genomic characterisation and epidemiology of 2019 novel coronavirus: implications for virus origins and receptor binding"

January 31, 2020

Li Q, Guan X, Wu P, Wang X, Zhou L, Tong Y, et al. Early transmission dynamics in Wuhan, China, of novel coronavirus-infected pneumonia. N Engl J Med. 2020 Jan 29 [Epub ahead of print].
Available from: https://www.nejm.org/doi/10.1056/NEJMoa2001316
Case series of 425 cases of 2019-nCoV in the early phase of the outbreak in Wuhan, China. Time course divided into three periods. No children younger than 15 years of age identified.

Review of "Early transmission dynamics in Wuhan, China, of novel coronavirus-infected pneumonia"

Updated

Backer JA, Klinkenberg D, Wallinga J. Incubation period of 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) infections among travellers from Wuhan, China, 20–28 January 2020. Eurosurveillance. 2020;25(5):2000062.
Available from: https://www.eurosurveillance.org/content/10.2807/1560-7917.ES.2020.25.5.2000062

Study to determine the incubation period based on 88 cases who had been in Wuhan during the outbreak but were diagnosed in other parts of China. Best fit mean incubation period estimated at 6.4 days and range 2.1-11.1 days (2.5th-97.5th percentile).

Review of "Novel coronavirus 2019-nCoV: early estimation of epidemiological parameters and epidemic predictions"

January 28, 2020

Huang C, Wang Y, Li X, Ren L, Zhao J, Hu Y, et al. Clinical features of patients infected with 2019 novel coronavirus in Wuhan, China. Lancet. 2020 Jan 24 [Epub ahead of print].
Available from: https://www.thelancet.com/journals/lancet/article/PIIS0140-6736(20)30183-5/fulltext

Case series of 41 patients hospitalized with laboratory confirmed illness in Wuhan.

Review of "Clinical features of patients infected with 2019 novel coronavirus in Wuhan, China"

January 28, 2020

Chan JF, Yuan S, Kok KH, To KK, Chu H, Yang J, et al. A familial cluster of pneumonia associated with the 2019 novel coronavirus indicating person-to-person transmission: a study of a family cluster. Lancet. 2020 Jan 24 [Epub ahead of print].
Available from: https://www.thelancet.com/journals/lancet/article/PIIS0140-6736(20)30154-9/fulltext

Case series of six family members who visited Wuhan; five infected, one asymptomatically; transmitted to another family member on returning home.

Review of "A familial cluster of pneumonia associated with the 2019 novel coronavirus indicating person-to-person transmission: a study of a family cluster"
New

December 8, 2020

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Options to reduce quarantine for contacts of persons with SARS-CoV-2 infection using symptom monitoring and diagnostic testing [Internet]. Atlanta, GA: CDC; 2020 [last updated 2020 Dec 2; cited 2020 Dec 7].
Available from: https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/more/scientific-brief-options-to-reduce-quarantine.html

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), using modelling and existing data, investigated options for reducing the quarantine period for close contacts exposed to patients with Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) in the United States (US).

Review of “Options to reduce quarantine for contacts of persons with SARS-CoV-2 infection using symptom monitoring and diagnostic testing”

Mis à jour le 30 avr. 2021